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(148) Eisenberg, J. B.; Lee, K.; Yuan, X.; Schmidt, J. R.; Choi, K.-S. “The Impact of Electron Donating and Withdrawing Groups on Electrochemical Hydrogenolysis and Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2024. | DOI: 10.1021/jacs.4c03032

Figure 1

(147) Tian, C.; Dorakhan, R.; Wicks, J.; Chen, Z.; Choi, K.-S.; Singh, N.; Schaidle, J. A.; Holewinski, A.; Vojvodic, A.; Vlachos, D. G.; Broadbelt, L. J.; Sargent, E. H. “Progress and roadmap for electro-privileged transformations of bio-derived molecules” Nat. Catal. 2024, 7, 350-360. | DOI: 10.1038/s41929-024-01131-6

(146) Kim, H. Y.; Wi, D. H.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, K.-S. “Photoelectrochemical Nitrate and Nitrite Reduction Using Cu2O Photocathodes” ACS Energy Lett. 2024, 9, 1993-1999. | DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.4c00256

(145) Yuan, X.; Lee, K.; Eisenberg, J. B.; Schmidt, J. R.; Choi, K.-S. “Selective deoxygenation of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds on Zn via electrochemical Clemmensen reduction” Nat. Catal. 2024, 7, 43-54. | DOI: 10.1038/s41929-023-01066-4


(144) Goetz, M. K.; Usman, E.; Choi, K.-S. “Understanding and Suppressing CC Cleavage during Glycerol Oxidation for C3 Chemical Production” ACS Catal. 2023, 13, 24, 15758-15769. | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.3c03365

(143) Hilbrands, A. M.; Goetz, M. K.; Choi, K.-S. “C-C Bond Formation Coupled with C-C Bond Cleavage during Oxidative Upgrading of Glycerol on a Nanoporous BiVO4 Photoanode” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2023, 145, 46, 25382-25391. | DOI: 10.1021/jacs.3c09631

(142) Hilbrands, A. M.; Zhang, S.; Zhou, C.; Melani, G.; Wi, D. H.; Lee, D.; Xi, Z.; Head, A.; Liu, M.; Galli, G.; Choi, K.-S. “The Impact of Varying the Photoanode/Catalyst Interfacial Composition on Solar Water Oxidation: the Case of BiVO4(010)/FeOOH Photoanodes” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2023, 145, 43, 23639-23650. | DOI: 10.1021/jacs.3c07722

(141) Yuan, X.; Lee, K.; Schmidt, J. R.; Choi, K.-S. “Halide Adsorption Enhances Electrochemical Hydrogenolysis of 5Hydroxymethylfurfural by Suppressing Hydrogenation” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2023, 145, 37, 20473-20484. | DOI: 10.1021/jacs.3c06289 

(140) Wi, D.H.; Lumley, M; Xi, Z; Liu, M; Choi, K.-S. “Investigation of Electron Extraction and Protection Layers on Cu2O Photocathodes” Chem. Mater. 2023, 35, 11, 4385-4392. | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.3c00543

(139) Nam, D.-H.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Bi/BiPO4 Cells for a Sustainable Phosphate Cycle” ACS Energy Lett. 2023. 8, 1, 802–808 | DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.2c02444


(138) Wang, W.; Favaro, M.; Chen, E.; Trotochaud, L.; Bluhm, H.; Choi, K.-S.; Krol, R.; Starr, D.; Galli, G. “Influence of Excess Charge on Water Adsorption on the BiVO4(010) Surface” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2022. 144, 37, 17173 – 17185 | DOI: 10.1021/jacs.2c07501

(137) Bender, M.; Yuan, X.; Goetz, M.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Hydrogenation, Hydrogenolysis, and Dehydrogenation for Reductive and Oxidative Biomass Upgrading Using 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural as a Model System” ACS Catal. 2022. 12, 12349-12368 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.2c03606

(136) Goetz, M.; Bender, M.; Choi, K.-S. “Predictive control of selective secondary alcohol oxidation of glycerol on NiOOH” Nat. Commun. 2022. 13, 5848 | DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-33637-7

(135) Yuan, X.; Lee, K.; Bender, M.; Schmidt, J.R.; Choi, K.-S. “Mechanistic Differences between Electrochemical Hydrogenation and Hydrogenolysis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Their pH Dependence” ChemSusChem 2022. | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202200952

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(134) Sharp, I. D.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, K.-S. “Solar Fuels Roadmap: from Materials Discovery to Functional Photoelectrodes” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 2022, 55, 323003. | DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/ac6f97

(133) Bender, M.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Dehydrogenation Pathways of Amines to Nitriles on NiOOH” JACS Au 2022, 2, 5, 1169−1180. | DOI: 10.1021/jacsau.2c00150

(132) Bender, M.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Oxidation of HMF via Hydrogen Atom Transfer and Hydride Transfer on NiOOH and the Impact of NiOOH Composition” ChemSusChem. 2022. | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202200675


(131) Bender, M.; Warburton, R.; Hammes-Schiffer, S.; Choi, K.-S. “Understanding Hydrogen Atom and Hydride Transfer Processes during Electrochemical Alcohol and Aldehyde Oxidation” ACS Catal. 2021, 11, 24, 15110−1524. | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.1c04163

(130) Francàs, L.; Selim, S.; Corby, S.; Lee, D.; Mesa, C.; Pastor, E.; Choi, K.-S.; Durrant, J. “Water Oxidation Kinetics of Nanoporous BiVO4 Photoanodes Functionalised with Nickel/Iron Oxyhydroxide Electrocatalysts” Chem. Sci. 2021, 12, 7442−7452. | DOI: 10.1039/D0SC06429G

Graphical abstract: Water oxidation kinetics of nanoporous BiVO4 photoanodes functionalised with nickel/iron oxyhydroxide electrocatalysts

(129) Lee, D. K.; Kubota, S. R.; Janes, A.; Bender, M. T.; Woo, J.; Schmidt, J. R.; Choi, K.-S. “The Impact of 5-Hydroxymethyl Furfural (HMF)-Metal Interactions on the Electrochemical Reduction Pathways of HMF on Various Metal Electrodes” ChemSusChem. 2021, 14, 4563−4572. | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202101037

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(128) Jang, Y. J.; Evans, T. A.; Samanta, B.; Toroker, M. C.; Choi, K.-S. “A Comparative Study of Bi, Sb, and BiSb for Electrochemical Nitrogen Reduction Leading to New Catalyst Design Principles” J. Mater. Chem. A 2021, 9, 20453−20465. | DOI: 10.1039/D1TA05327B

Graphical abstract: A comparative study of Bi, Sb, and BiSb for electrochemical nitrogen reduction leading to a new catalyst design strategy

(127) Wang, W.; Radmilovic, A.; Choi, K.-S.; Giulia, G. “Integrating Computation and Experiment to Investigate Photoelectrodes for Solar Water Splitting at the Microscopic Scale” Acc. Chem. Res. 2021, 54, 3863-3872 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.1c00418

(126) Nam, D.-H; Lumley, M. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Redox Cells Capable of Desalination and Energy Storage: Addressing Challenges of the Water-Energy Nexus” ACS Energy Lett. 2021, 6, 1034-1044 | DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.0c02399

(125) Nam, D.-H; Lumley, M. A.; Choi, K.-S. “A Seawater Battery with Desalination Capabilities Enabling a Dual-Purpose Aqueous Energy Storage System” Energy Storage Mater. 2021, 37, 556-566 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ensm.2021.02.037

(124) Lee, D.; Wang, W.; Zhou, C.; Tong, X.; Liu, M.; Galli, G.; Choi, K.-S. “The impact of surface composition on the interfacial energetics and photoelectrochemical properties of BiVO4″ Nat. Energy. 2021 | DOI: 10.1038/s41560-0221-00777-x

(123) Nam, D.-H.; Lee, D.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Approaches for the Selective Removal, Recovery, and Valorization of Chloride Ions” Chem. Eng. J. 2021, 404, 126387 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2020.126378


(122) Bender, M. T.; Lam, Y.-C.; Hammes-Schiffer, S. ; Choi, K.-S. “Unraveling Two Pathways for Electrochemical Alcohol and Aldehyde Oxidation on NiOOH” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2020, 142, 51, 21538-21547 | DOI: 10.1021/jacs.0c10924

(121) Bender, M. T.; Yuan, X.; Choi, K.-S. “Alcohol oxidation as alternative anode reactions paired with (photo) electrochemical fuel production reactions” Nat. Commun.  2020, 11:4594 | DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18461-1

(120) Lindberg, A. E.; Wang, W.; Zhang, S.; Galli, G.; Choi, K.-S. “Can a PbCrO4 Photoanode Perform as Well as Isoelectronic BiVO4?” ACS Appl. Energy Mater.  2020, 3, 9, 8658-8666 | DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.0c01250

(119) Lumley, M. A.; Nam, D.-H.; Choi, K.-S. “Elucidating Structure-Composition-Property Relationships of Ni-Based Prussian Blue Analogues for Electrochemical Seawater Desalination” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 32, 36014-36025 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c08084

(118) Jang, Y. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Enabling electrochemical N2 reduction to NH3 in the low overpotential region using non-noble metal Bi electrodes via surface composition modification” J. Mater. Chem. A. 2020, 8, 13842-13851 | DOI: 10.1039/D0TA02550J

Graphical abstract: Enabling electrochemical N2 reduction to NH3 in the low overpotential region using non-noble metal Bi electrodes via surface composition modification

(117) Lee, D.; Baltazar, V. U.; Smart, T. J.; Ping, Y.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Oxidation of Metal-Catechol Complexes as a New Synthesis Route to the High-Quality Ternary Photoelectrodes: A Case Study of Fe2TiO5 Photoanodes” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 2020, 12, 29275-29284 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c05359

(116) Evans, T. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis and Investigation of Stoichiometric, Phase-Pure CoSb2O6 and MnSb2O6 Electrodes for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Acidic Media” ACS Appl. Energy Mater.  2020, 3, 5563-5571 | DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.0c00526

(115) Jang, Y. J.; Lindberg, A. E.; Lumley, M. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Photoelectrochemical Nitrogen Reduction to Ammonia on Cupric and Cuprous Oxide Photocathodes” ACS Energy Lett.  2020, 5, 1834-1939 | DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.0c00711

(114) Radmilovic, A.; Smart, T.J.; Ping, Y.; Choi, K.-S. “Combined Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of n-Type BiFeOfor Use as a Photoanode in a Photoelectrochemical Cell” Chem. Mater.  2020, 32, 3262-3270 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c00545

(113) Wang, W.; Strohbeen, P. J.; Lee, D.; Zhou, C.; Kawasaki, J. K.; Choi, K.-S.; Liu, M.; Galli, G. “The Role of Surface Oxygen Vacancies in BiVO4” Chem. Mater.  2020, 32, 2899-2909 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b05047

(112) Taitt, B. J.; Bender, M. T.; Choi, K.-S. “Impacts of the Regeneration Pathways of the Oxoammonium Cation on Electrochemical Nitroxyl Radical-Mediated Alcohol Oxidation” ACS Catal.  2020, 10, 265-275 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.9b03241


(111) Brédas, J.-L.; Buriak, J. M.; Caruso, F.; Choi, K.-S.; Korgel, B. A.; M. Palacín, R.; Persson, K.; Reichmanis, E.; Schüth, F.; Seshadri, R; Ward, M. D. “An Electrifying Choice for the 2019 Chemistry Nobel Prize: Goodenough, Whittingham, and Yoshino” Chem. Mater. 2019, 31, 8577–8581. | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b04345

(110) Francàs, L.; Corby, S.; Selim, S.; Lee, D.; Mesa, C. A.; Godin, R.; Pastor, E.; Stephens, I. E. L.; Choi, K.-S.; Durrant, J. R. “Spectroelectrochemical Study of Water Oxidation on Nickel and Iron Oxyhydroxide Electrocatalysts” Nat. Commun.  2019, 10:5208 | DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-13061-0

(109) Lumley, M. A.; Radmilovic, A.; Jang, Y. J.; Lindberg, A. E.; Choi, K.-S. “Perspectives on the Development of Oxide-Based Photocathodes for Solar Fuel Production” J. Am. Chem. Soc.  2019 | DOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b07976

(108) Nam, D.-H.; Choi, K.-S. “Tandem Desalination/Salination Strategies Enabling the Use of Redox Couples for Efficient and Sustainable Electrochemical Desalination” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 2019, 11, 38641-38647 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.9b11964

(107) Wang, J.; Peurifoy, S.R.; Bender, M.T.; Ng, F.; Choi, K.-S.; Nuckolls, C.; Arnold, M.S. “Non-fullerene Acceptors for Harvesting Excitons from Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes” J. Phys. Chem. C. 2019, 123, 21395-21402 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b06381

(106) Wheeler, G. P.; Baltazar, V. U.; Smart, T. J.; Radmilovic, A.; Ping, Y.; Choi, K.-S. “Combined Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Atomic Doping to Enhance Photon Absorption and Carrier Transport of LaFeO3 Photocathodes” Chem. Mater. 2019, 31, 5890-5899 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b02141

(105) Cardiel, A. C.; Taitt, B. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Stabilities, Regeneration Pathways, and Electrocatalytic Properties of Nitroxyl Radicals for the Electrochemical Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural” ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2019, 7, 11138-11149 | DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.9b00203 ( Authors contributed equally to this work)

(104) Nam, D.-H.; Lumley, M. A.; Choi, K.-S. “A Desalination Battery Combining Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 as a Na-Storage Electrode and Bi as a Cl-Storage Electrode Enabling Membrane-Free Desalination” Chem. Mater. 2019, 31, 1460-1468 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.9b00084

(103) Lee D. K.; Lee, D.; Lumley, M. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Progress on Ternary Oxide-Based Photoanodes for Use in Photoelectrochemical Cells for Solar Water Splitting” Chem. Soc. Rev. 2019, 48, 2126-2157 | DOI: 10.1039/C8CS00761F

Graphical abstract: Progress on ternary oxide-based photoanodes for use in photoelectrochemical cells for solar water splitting

(102) Taitt, B. J.; Nam, D.-H.; Choi, K.-S. “A Comparative Study of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron Oxyhydroxide Anodes for the Electrochemical Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid” ACS Catal. 2019, 9, 660-670 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.8b04003 ( Authors contributed equally to this work)


(101) Buriak, J. M.; Toro, C.; Choi, K.-S. “Chemistry of Materials for Water Splitting Reactions” Chem. Mater. 2018, 30, 7325–7327 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b04419

(100) Smart, T. J.; Cardiel, A. C.; Wu, F.; Choi, K.-S.; Ping, Y. “Mechanistic Insights of Enhanced Spin Polaron Conduction in Cu through Atomic Doping” NPJ Comput. Mat. 2018, 4, 61 | DOI: 10.1038/s41524-018-0118-3 ( Authors contributed equally to this work)

(99) Nam, D.-H.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Desalination Using Bi/BiOCl Electrodialysis Cells” ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2018, 6, 15455-15462 | DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b03906

(98) Wheeler, G. P.; Choi, K.-S. “Investigation of p-type Ca2Fe2O5 as a Photocathode for Use in a Water Splitting Photoelectrochemical Cell” ACS Appl. Energy Mater. 2018, 1, 4917-4923 | DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.8b00934

(97) Govindaraju, G. V.; Morbec, J. M.; Galli, G. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Experimental and Computational Investigation of Lanthanide Ion Doping on BiVO4 Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting” J. Phys. Chem. C. 2018, 122, 19416-19424 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b05503

(96) Lee, D.; Kvit, A.; Choi, K.-S. “Enabling Solar Water Oxidation by BiVO4 Photoanodes in Basic Media” Chem. Mater. 2018, 30, 4704-4712 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b01405

(95) Kubota, R. S.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Valorization of Furfural to Maleic Acid” ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng. 2018, 6, 9596-9600 | DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b02698

(94) Kubota, R. S.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Oxidation of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid (FDCA) in Acidic Media Enabling Spontaneous FDCA Separation” ChemSusChem. 2018, 11, 2138-2145 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201800532

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(93) Nam, D.-H.; Taitt, B. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Copper-Based Catalytic Anodes to Produce 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid, a Biomass-Derived Alternative to Terephthalic Acid” ACS Catal. 2018, 8, 1197-1206 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.7b03152

(92) Lee, D. K.; Choi, K.-S. “Enhancing long-term photostability of BiVO4 photoanodes for solar water splitting by tuning electrolyte composition” Nat. Energy. 2018, 3, 53-60 | DOI: 10.1038/s41560-017-0057-0


(91) Lumley, M. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Investigation of Pristine and (Mo, W)-Doped Cu11V6O26 for Use as Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting” Chem. Mater. 2017, 29, 9472-9479 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b03587

(90) Wheeler, G. P.; Choi, K.-S. “Photoelectrochemical Properties and Stability of Nanoporous p-Type LaFeO3 Photoelectrodes Prepared by Electrodepostion” ACS. Energy Lett. 2017, 2, 2378-2382 | DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.7b00642

(89) Nam, D.-H.; Choi, K.-S. “Bismuth as a New Chloride-Storage Electrode Enabling the Construction of a Practical High Capacity Desalination Battery” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 11055-11063 | DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b01119

(88) Peng, Y.; Govindaraju, G. V.; Lee, D. K.; Choi, K.-S.; Andrew, T. L. “Integrating a Semitransparent, Fullerene-Free Organic Solar Cell in Tandem with a BiVO4 Photoanode for Unassisted Solar Water Splitting” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 2017, (27), 22449-22455 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b04486 ( Authors contributed equally to this work)

(87) Cardiel, A. C.; McDonald, K. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Growth of Copper Hydroxy Double Salt Films and Their Conversion to Nanostructured p-type CuO photocathodes” Langmuir. 2017, 33, 9262-9270 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.7b00588


(86) Govindaraju, G. V.; Wheeler, G. P.; Lee, D.; Choi, K.-S. “Methods for Electrochemical Synthesis and Photoelectrochemical Characterization for Photoelectrodes” Chem. Mater. 2016, 29, 355-370 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b03469 ( Authors contributed equally to this work)

(85) Roylance, J. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Redutive Amination of Furfural-Based Biomass Intermediates” Green Chem. 2016, 18, 5412-5417 | DOI: 10.1039/C6GC01541G

(84) Kang, D.; Lee, D.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Highly Oriented, Transparent, and Pinhole-Free ZnO and Al-Doped ZnO Films and Their Use in Heterojunction Solar Cells” Langmuir. 2016, 32, 10459-10466 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b01902

(83) Kang, D.; Hill, J. C.; Park, Y.; Choi, K.-S. “Photoelectrochemical properties and photostabilities of high surface area CuBi2O4 and Ag-doped CuBi2O4 photocathodes” Chem. Mater. 2016, 28, 4331-4340 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b01294

(82) Roylance, J. J.; W.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical reductive biomass conversion: Direct conversion of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-hexanedione (HD) via reductive ring opening” Green Chem. 2016, 18, 2956-2960 | DOI: 10.1039/C6GC00533K

(81) Roylance, J. J.; Kim, T. W.; Choi, K.-S. “Efficient and Selective Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Reduction of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-Bis(hydroxymethyl)furan using Water as the Hydrogen Source” ACS Catal.  2016, 6, 1840-1847. | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.5b02586

(80) Kim, T. W.; Choi, K.-S. “Improving Stability and Photoelectrochemical Performance of BiVO4 Photoanodes in Basic Media by Adding a ZnFe2O4 Layer” J. Phys. Chem. Lett.  2016, 7, 447-451. | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b02774


(79) Kang, D.; Kim, T. W.; Kubota, S.; Cardiel, A.; Cha, H. G.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Photoelectrodes and Catalysts for Use in Solar Water Splitting” Chem. Rev. 2015, 115, 12839-12887 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00498

(78) Kim, T. W.; Ping, Y.; Galli, G. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Simultaneous Enhancements in Photon Absorption and Charge Transport of Bismuth Vanadate Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting” Nat. Commun. 2015, 6:8769. | DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9769

(77) Papa, C. M.; Cesnik, A. J.; Evans, T. C.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Binary and Ternary Niobium-Containing Oxide Electrodes Using the p-Benzoquinone/Hydroquinone Redox Couple” Langmuir. 2015, 31, 9502-9510 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.5b01665

(76) Cha, H. G.; Choi, K.-S. “Combined Biomass valorization and hydrogen production in a photoelectrochemical cell” Nature Chemistry. 2015, 7, 328-333. | DOI: 10.1038/nchem.2194


(75) Kang, D.; Park, Y.; Hill, J. C.; Choi, K.-S. “Preparation of Bi-Based Ternary Oxide Photoanodes BiVO4, Bi2WO6, and Bi2Mo3O12 Using Dendritic Bi Metal Electrodes” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 2994–2999. | DOI: 10.1021/jz501544k

(74) Kim, T. W.; Regis, M.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Spinel Type ZnCo2O4 Electrodes for Use as Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalyst” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 2370−2374. | DOI: 10.1021/jz501077u

(73) Kim, T. W.; Choi, K.-S. “Nanoporous BiVO4 Photoanodes with Dual-Layer Oxygen Evolution Catalysts for Solar Water Splitting” Science 2014, 343, 990 – 994. | DOI: 10.1126/science.1246913

(72) Maijenburg, A. W.; Regis, M.; Hattori, A. N.; Tanaka, H.; Choi, K.-S.; ten Elshof, J. E. “MoS2 nanocube structures as catalysts for electrochemical H2 evolution from acidic aqueous solutions” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2014, 6, 2003–2010. | DOI: 10.1021/am405075f

(71) Park, Y.; Kang, D.; Choi, K.-S. “Marked Enhancement in Electron-Hole Separation Achieved in the Low Bias Region by Electrochemically Prepared Mo-Doped BiVO4 Photoanodes” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 16, 1238–1246. | DOI: 10.1039/c3cp53649a


(70) Maijenburg, A. W.; Hattori, A. N.; De Respinis, M.; McShane, C.; Choi, K.-S.; Dam, B.; Tanaka, H.; ten Elshof, J. E. “Ni and p-Cu2O nanocubes with a small size distribution by templated electrodeposition, and their characterization by photocurrent measurement” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2013, 5, 10938–10945. | DOI: 10.1021/am403142x

(69) Hill, J. C.; Ping, Y.; Galli, G. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Synthesis, Photoelectrochemical Properties, and First Principle Study of n-type CuW1-xMoxO4 Electrodes Showing Enhanced Visible Light Absorption”
 Energy Environ. Sci. 2013, 6, 2440–2446. | DOI: 10.1039/C3EE40827B

(68) Hill, J. C.; Choi, K.-S. “Synthesis and Characterization of High Surface Area CuWO4 and Bi2WO6 Electrodes for use as Photoanodes for Solar Water Oxidation” J. Mat. Chem. A 2013, 1, 5006–5014. | DOI: 10.1039/C3TA10245A

(67) Park, Y.; McDonald, K. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Progress in bismuth vanadate photoanodes for use in solar water oxidation” Chem. Soc. Rev. 2013, 42, 2321–2337. | DOI: 10.1039/C2CS35260E


(66) Zhang, H.; Baker, B. A.; Cha, T.-G.; Sauffer, M. D.; Wu, Y.; Hinkson, N.; Bork, M. A.; McShane, C. M.; Choi, K.-S.; McMillin, D. R.; Choi, J. H. “DNA Oligonucleotide Templated Nanohybrids Using Electronic Type Sorted Carbon Nanotubes for Light Harvesting” Adv. Mater. 2012, 24, 5447–5451. | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201201628

(65) Huang, Z.; Lin, Y.; Xiang, X.; Rodriguez Cordoba, W.; McDonald, K. J.; Hagen, K.; Choi, K.-S.; Brunschwig, B. S.; Musaev, D.; Hill, C. L.; Wang, D.; Lian, T. “In situ probe of photocarrier dynamics in water-splitting hematite (α-Fe2O3) electrodes” Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5, 8923–8926. | DOI: 10.1039/C2EE22681B

(64) McDonald, K. J.; Choi, K.-S. “A new electrochemical synthesis route for a BiOI electrode and its conversion to a highly efficient porous BiVO4 photoanode for solar water oxidation” Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5, 8553–8557. | DOI: 10.1039/c2ee22608a

(63) Read, C. G.; Park, Y.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis of p-type CuFeO2 Electrodes for Use in a Photoelectrochemical Cell” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 1872–1876. | DOI: 10.1021/jz300709t

(62) Hill, J. C.; Choi, K.-S. “Effect of Electrolytes on the Selectivity and Stability of n-type WO3 Photoelectrodes for Use in Solar Water Oxidation” J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 7612–7620. | DOI: 10.1021/jp209909b

(61) McShane. C. M.; Choi, K.-S. “Junction Studies on Electrochemically Fabricated p-n Cu2O Homojunction Solar Cells for Efficiency Enhancement” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2012, 14, 6112–6118. | DOI: 10.1039/c2cp40502d

(60) Seabold, J. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Efficient and Stable Photo-Oxidation of Water by a Bismuth Vanadate Photoanode Coupled with an Iron Oxyhydroxide Oxygen Evolution Catalyst” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 2186–2192. | DOI: 10.1021/ja209001d


(59) McDonald, K. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Synthesis and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Fe2O3/ZnFe2O4 Composite Photoanodes for Use in Solar Water Oxidation” Chem. Mater. 2011, 23, 4863–4869. | DOI: 10.1021/cm202399g

(58) McDonald, K. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Photodeposition of Co-Based Oxygen Evolution Catalysts on α-Fe2O3 Photoanodes” Chem. Mater. 2011, 23, 1686–1693. | DOI: 10.1021/cm1020614

(57) Spray, R. L. McDonald, K. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Enhancing Photoresponse of Nanoparticulate α-Fe2O3 Electrodes by Surface Composition Tuning” J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 3497–3506. | DOI: 10.1021/jp1093433

(56) Seabold, J. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Effect of a Cobalt-Based Oxygen Evolution Catalyst on the Stability and the Selectivity of Photo-Oxidation Reactions of a WO3 Photoanode” Chem. Mater. 2011, 23, 1105–1112. | DOI: 10.1021/cm1019469


(55) McShane. C. M.; Siripala, W. P.; Choi, K.-S. “Effect of Junction Morphology on the Performance of Polycrystalline Cu2O Homojunction Solar Cells” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 2666–2670. | DOI: 10.1021/jz100991e

(54) Jung, Y.; Spray, R. L.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, K.-S. “Selective polymerization of polypyrrole in silica mesopores using an in situ generated oxidizing agent on a silica surface” Chem. Commun. 2010, 46, 6566–6568. | DOI: 10.1039/C0CC01746A

(53) Choi, K.-S. “Shape Effect and Shape Control of Polycrystalline Semiconductor Electrodes for Use in Photoelectrochemical cells” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 2244–2250. | DOI: 10.1021/jz100629n

(52) Choi, K.-S.; Jang, H. S.; McShane, C. M.; Read, C. G.; Seabold, J. A. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Inorganic Polycrystalline Electrodes with Controlled Architectures” Mater. Res. Soc. Bull. 2010, 35, 753–760. | DOI: 10.1557/mrs2010.504

(51) Jang, H. S.; Kim, S. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Construction of Cuprous Oxide Electrodes Composed of 2D Single-Crystalline Dendritic Nanosheets” Small 2010, 6, 2183–2190. | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001033

(50) Jung, Y.; Lee, H. I.; Kim, J. H.; Yun, M.-H.; Hwang, J.; Ahn, D.-H.; Park, J.-N.; Choi, K.-S.; Kim, J. M. “Preparation of polypyrrole-incorporated mesoporous carbon-based composites for confinement of Eu(III) within mesopores” J. Mater. Chem. 2010, 20, 4663–4668. | DOI: 10.1039/B926479E


(49) Jung, Y.; Singh, N.; Choi, K.-S. “Cathodic Deposition of Polypyrrole Enabling the One-Step Assembly of Metal–Polymer Hybrid Electrodes” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 8331–8334. | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200903596

(48) Steinmiller, E. M. P.; Choi, K.-S. “Photochemical Deposition of Cobalt-Based Oxygen Evolving Catalyst on a Semiconductor Photoanode for Solar Oxygen Production” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2009, 106, 20633–20636. | DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0910203106

(47) Read, C. G.; Steinmiller, E. M. P.; Choi, K.-S. “Atomic Plane-Selective Deposition of Gold Nanoparticles on Metal Oxide Crystals” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 12040–12041. | DOI: 10.1021/ja9036884

(46) Spray, R. L.; Choi, K.-S. “Photoactivity of Transparent Nanocrystalline Fe2O3 Electrodes Prepared via Anodic Deposition” Chem. Mater. 2009, 21, 3701–3709. | DOI: 10.1021/cm803099k

(45) Grimes, C.; Shankar, K.; Allam, N.; Varghese, O.; Mor, G.; Feng, X. J.; Paulose, M.; Seabold, J. A.; Choi, K.-S. “Recent Advances in the Use of TiO2 Nanotube and Nanowire arrays for Oxidative Photoelectrochemistry” J. Phys. Chem. C 2009, 113, 6327–6359. | DOI: 10.1021/jp809385x

(44) McShane. C. M.; Choi, K.-S. “Photocurrent Enhancement of n-Type Cu2O Electrodes Achieved by Controlling Dendritic Branching Growth” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 2561–2569. | DOI: 10.1021/ja806370s


(43) Choi, K.-S. “Shape Control of Inorganic Crystals via Electrodeposition” Dalton Trans. 2008, 5432–5438. | DOI: 10.1039/B807848C

(42) Seabold, J. A.; Karthik, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.; Paulose, M.; Varghese, O. K.; Grimes, C. A. Choi, K.-S. “Photoelectrochemical Properties of Heterojunction CdTe/TiO2 Electrodes Constructed Using Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays” Chem. Mater. 2008, 20, 5266–5273. | DOI: 10.1021/cm8010666

(41) Mor, G.; Varghese, O.; Wilke, R.; Sharma, S.; Shankar, K.; Latempa, T.; Choi, K.-S.; Grimes, C. “p-Type Cu-Ti-O Nanotube Arrays and their use in Self-Biased Heterojunction Photoelectrochemical Diodes for Hydrogen Generation” Nano Lett. 2008, 8, 1906–1911. | DOI: 10.1021/nl080572y

(40) Yarger, M. S.; Steinmiller, E. M. P.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Zn-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) Films” Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 5859–5865. | DOI: 10.1021/ic800193j

(39) Choi, K.-S.; Steinmiller, E. M. P. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Lamellar Structured ZnO Films via Electrochemical Interfacial Surfactant Templating” Electrochim. Acta 2008, 53, 6953–6960. | DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2007.12.058

(38) Siegfried, M. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Elucidation of New Overpotential-Limited Branching Mechanism for Electrocrystallization of Cuprous Oxide” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 368–372. | DOI: 10.1002/anie.200702432


(37) Steinmiller, E. M. P.; Choi, K.-S. “Anodic Construction of Lamellar Structured ZnO Films Using Basic Media” Langmuir, 2007, 23, 12710–12715. | DOI: 10.1021/la702066w

(36) Siegfried, M. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Conditions and mechanism for the anodic deposition of cupric oxide films in slightly acidic aqueous media” J. Electrochem. Soc. 2007, 154, D674–D677. | DOI: 10.1149/1.2789394

(35) Franklin, A. D.; Smith, J. T.; Fisher, T. S.; Sands, T.; Choi, K.-S.; JanesD. B. “Controlled Decoration of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Pd Nanocubes” J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 13756–13762. | DOI: 10.1021/jp074411e

(34) Spray, R. L.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis of SnO2 Films Containing Three-Dimensionally Organized Uniform Mesopores via Interfacial Surfactant Templating” Chem. Commun. 2007, 3655–3657. | DOI: 10.1039/B704428C

(33) Santato, C.; López, C. M.; Choi, K.-S. “Synthesis and Characterization of Polycrystalline Sn and SnO2 Films with Wire Morphologies” Electrochem. Commun. 2007, 9, 1519–1524. | DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2007.02.006

(32) Bentley, A. K.; Weaver G. C.; Russell, C. B.; Fornes, W. L.; Shih, S.; Choi, K.-S. “Modifying Optical Properties of ZnO films by Forming Zn1-xCoxO Solid Solutions via Spray Pyrolysis” J. Chem. Educ. 2007, 84, 1183–1185. | DOI: 10.1021/ed084p1183

(31) Yarger, M. S.; Steinmiller, E. M. P.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Cobalt Hydroxide Films with Tunable Interlayer Spacings” Chem. Commun. 2007, 159–161. | DOI: 10.1039/B609621B


(30) López, C. M. and Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Dendritic Zinc Films Composed of Systematically Varying Motif Crystals” Langmuir, 2006, 22, 10625–10629. | DOI: 10.1021/la0611864

(29) Siegfried, M. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Elucidating the Effects of Additives on Growth and Stability of Cu2O Surfaces via Shape Transformation of Pre-Grown Crystals” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 10356–10357. | DOI: 10.1021/ja063574y

(28) Brown, K. E. R.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of transparent nanocrystalline Cu2O films and their conversion to CuO films” Chem. Commun. 2006, 3311–3313. | DOI: 10.1039/B604097G


(27) Tan, Y.; Steinmiller, Ellen, M. P.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Tailoring of Lamellar Structured ZnO Films by Interfacial Surfactant Templating” Langmuir 2005, 21, 9618–9624. | DOI: 10.1021/la050789x

(26) López, C. M.; Choi, K.-S. “Enhancement of electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of Fibrous Zn and ZnO electrodes” Chem. Commun. 2005, 3328–3330. | DOI: 10.1039/B502238J

(25) Siegfried, M. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Directing the Architecture of Cuprous Oxide Crystals During Electrochemical Growth” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 3218–3224. | DOI: 10.1002/ange.200463018

(24) Jaramillo, T. F.; Baeck, S.-H.; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, A.; Choi, K.-S.; Stucky, G. D.; McFarland, E. W. “Automated Electrochemical Synthesis and Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Zn1-xCoxO Thin Films for Solar Hydrogen Production” J. Comb. Chem. 2005, 7, 264–271.

(23) Tan, Y.; Srinivasan, S.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Deposition of Mesoporous Nickel Hydroxide Films from Dilute Surfactant Solutions” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 3596–3604. | DOI: 10.1021/ja0434329


(22) Siegfried, M. J.; Choi, K.-S. “Electrochemical Crystallization of Cuprous Oxide with Systematic Shape Evolution” Adv. Mater. 2004, 16, 1743–1746. | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400177


(21) Choi, K.-S.; McFarland, E. W.; Stucky, G. D. “Electrocatalytic Properties of Thin Mesoporous Platinum Films Synthesized Utilizing Potential-Controlled Surfactant Assembly.” Adv. Mater. 2003, 15, 2018–2021. | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200304557

(20) Baeck, S.-H.; Choi, K.-S.; Jaramillo, T. F.; Stucky, G. D.; McFarland, E. W. “Enhancement of photocatalytic and electrochromic properties of electrochemically fabricated mesoporous WO3 thin films.” Adv. Mater. 2003, 15, 1269–1273. | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200304669


(19) Choi, K.-S.; Lichtenegger, H. C. ; McFarland, E. W.; Stucky, G. D. “Electrochemical Synthesis of Nanostructured ZnO Films Utilizing Self Assembly of Surfactant Molecules at Solid-Liquid Interfaces.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 12402–12403. | DOI: 10.1021/ja0275562

(18) Wong, Michael S.; Cha, Jennifer N.; Choi, K.-S.; Deming, Timothy J.; Stucky, G. D. “Assembly of Nanoparticles into Hollow Spheres using Block Copolypeptides.” Nano Letters 2002, 2, 583–587. | DOI: 10.1021/nl020244c


(17) Choi, K.-S.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “A Novel Chiral Structure of RbUSb0.33Te6 with U4+ Centers Coordinated by Three One-dimensional Zigzag Te Chains.” J. Solid State Chem. 2001, 161, 17–22. | DOI: 10.1006/jssc.2001.9261

(16) Peterson, P. F.; Proffen, Th.; Jeong, I.-K.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Choi, K.-S.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Radaelli, P. G. “Local Atomic Strain in ZnSe(1-x)Te(x) from High Real Space Resolution Neutron Measurements.” Phys. Rev. B 2001, 63, 165211 (1–7). | DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.63.165211

(15) Choi, K.-S.; Chung, D.-Y.; Mrotzek, A.; Brazis, P.; Kannewurf, C. R.; Uher, C.; Chen. W.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “Modular Construction of A1+xM4-2xM‘7+xSe15 (A = K, Rb; M = Pb, Sn; M’ = Bi, Sb): A New Class of Solid State Quaternary Thermoelectric Compounds.” Chem. Mater. 2001, 13, 756–764. | DOI: 10.1021/cm0003323

(14) Choi, K.-S.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “Si Extraction from Silica in a Basic Polychalcogenide Flux. Stabilization of Ba4SiSb2Se11, a Novel Mixed Selenosilicate/Selenoantimonate with a Polar Structure.” Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 101–104. | DOI: 10.1021/ic0007557


(13) Kyratsi, T.; Chung, D.-Y.; Choi, K.-S.; Dick, J. S.; Chen, W.; Uher, C.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “Crystal Growth of Ternary and Quaternary Alkali Metal Bismuth Chalcogenides Using Bridgman Technique.” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 2000, 626, Z8.8. | DOI: 10.1557/PROC-626-Z8.8

(12) Mrotzek, A.; Choi, K.-S.; Chung, D.-Y.; Lane, M. A.; Ireland, J. R.; Brazis, P. W.; Hogan, T.; Kannewurf, C. R.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of New Quaternary Tin and Lead Bismuth Selenides, K1+xM4-2xBi7+xSe 15 (M = Sn, Pb) and K1-xSn5-xBi11+xSe22.” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 2000, 626, Z8.4. | DOI: 10.1557/PROC-626-Z8.4

(11) Choi, K.-S.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “Sulfosalts with alkaline earth metals. Centrosymmetric vs acentric interplay in Ba3Sb4.66S10 and Ba2.62Pb1.38Sb4S10 based on the Ba/Pb/Sb ratio. Phases related to arsenosulfide minerals of the rathite group and the novel polysulfide Sr6Sb6S17.” Inorg. Chem. 2000, 39, 5655–5662. | DOI: 10.1021/ic000632m


(10) Choi, K.-S.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “New Uranium Chalcoantimonates, RbU2SbS8 and KU2SbSe8, with a Polar Noncentrosymmetric Structure.” Chem. Mater. 1999, 11, 2613–2618. | DOI: 10.1021/cm990320l

(9) Choi, K.-S.; Hanko, J. A.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “Eight-Fold Superstructure in K2Gd2Sb2Se9 and K2La2Sb2SCaused by Three-Dimensional Ordering of the 5s2 Lone Pair of Sb3+ Ions.” J. Solid State Chem. 1999, 147, 309–319. | DOI: 10.1006/jssc.1999.8287


(8) Kanatzidis, M. G.; Chung, D.-Y.; Iordanidis, L.; Choi, K.-S. “Solid State Chemistry Approach to Advanced Thermoelectrics.  Ternary and Quaternary Alkali Metal Bismuth Chalcogenides as Thermoelectric Materials.” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1998, 545, 233–246. | DOI: 10.1557/PROC-545-233

(7) Chung, D.-Y.; Choi, K.-S.; Brazis, P.; Kannewurf, C. R.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “Flux Synthesis of New Multinary Bismuth Chacogenides and Their Thermoelectric Properties” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1998, 545, 65–74. | DOI: 10.1557/PROC-545-65

(6) Choi, K.-S.; Chung, D.-Y.; Heising, J.; Brazis, P.; Kannewurf, C. R.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of SrBiTe3; 12-Fold Superstructure Caused by Distortion of the Two – Dimensional Te-Nets.” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 1998, 545, 117–122. | DOI: 10.1557/PROC-545-117

(5) Chung, D.-Y.; Iordanidis, L.; Choi, K.-S.; Kanatzidis M. G. “Complex Chalcogenides as Thermoelectric Materials: A Solid State Chemistry Approach.” Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 1998, 19, 1283–1203.

(4) Choi, K.-S ; Patschke, R. R; Billinge, S. J. L.; Waner, M. J.; Dantus, M; Kanatzidis, M. G. “Charge Density Wave Caused by Reducing ThSe3 by One Electron.  Superstructure and Short-Range Order in ATh2Se6 (A = K, Rb) Studied by X-ray Diffraction, Electron Diffraction, and Diffuse Scattering.” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998, 120, 10706–10714. | DOI: 10.1021/ja981675t


(3) Chung, D.-Y.; Choi, K.-S.; Iordanidis, L.; Schindler, J. L.; Brazis, P.; Kannewurf, C. R.; Chen, B.; Hu, S.; Uher, C.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “High Thermopower and Low Thermal Conductivity in Semiconducting Ternary K-Bi-Se Compounds.  Synthesis and Properties of β-K2Bi8Se13 and K2.5Bi8.5Se14 and their Sb analogs.” Chem. Mater. 1997, 9, 3060–3071. | DOI: 10.1021/cm970397e

(2) Choi, K.-S.; Iordanidis, L.; Chondroudis, K.; Kanatzidis, M. G. “KThSb2Se6 and BaLaBi2Q6 (Q=S,Se) Adopt a New Structure Type Stabilized with Dichalcogenide Groups.” Inorg. Chem. 1997, 36, 3804–3805. | DOI: 10.1021/ic970224r


(1) Choy J.-H.; Hong, S.-T.; Choi, K.-S. “Crystal Structure, Magnetism and Phase Transformation in Perovskites A2CrNbO6(A=Ca, Sr, Ba)” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1996, 92, 1051–1059. | DOI: 10.1039/ft9969201051